More Indian Hostilities--Citizens Organized for Defense--Columbus Guards.

As the files of this year and 1836 are missing from the Enquirer office, and we can find only three numbers (Jan. 10 to Jan. 23, 1835, inclusive,) our report of minor incidents and personal intelligence must needs be meager. We have a file of the Macon Messenger for the year 1835, from which we obtain some news of Columbus, and we presume that it would have made some mention of anything important occurring here during that year.

At the January election, the following municipal officers were elected:
Intendant, James C. Watson;
Commissioners--S. E. Bonner, A. S. Clifton, Asa Bates, J. P. H. Campbell, George W. Dillard, Lewis C. Alien.

During this year the troubles with the Indians increased, and the outrages committed by them kept the whites constantly in a state of excitement and alarm. The Indians had, by a treaty with the Federal Government in 1832, bound themselves to remove from the Alabama territory, opposite Columbus, to their new homes west of the Mississippi, within five years. But there was a large party (possibly a majority) opposed to the treaty at the time, and as the period allowed by it for their remaining in Alabama drew near its close, they became sullen and refractory, and committed many outrages both upon the whites and upon those of their own race who favored the treaty and its execution.

Among the outrages reported in the Enquirer for the few weeks of this year above mentioned, are the following: Rev. Mr. Davis of the Presbyterian Church of Columbus, was riding along the road, a few miles from town, when he was ambuscaded and shot in the right shoulder by a party of Indians. But he escaped death at their hands. "But a few weeks ago (said the Enquirer of January 10) an innocent child, son of a respectable farmer of Russell County, was shot and inhumanly butchered by one of these merciless savages. Several others have been shot at and narrowly escaped with their lives. It is high time these bloody-thirsty beings should be hunted up and made to suffer for their crimes."

These and other outrages naturally aroused the citizens to the necessity of organization for the protection of themselves and their neighbors. We find in the Macon Messenger the proceedings of a meeting of the citizens of Columbus, held on the 25th of April, 1835, which we copy below:

In consequence of the present hostile attitude of the Creek Indians of Alabama, their numerous aggressions upon the property of citizens of Georgia, and their inhuman massacre of several unoffending individuals, a numerous meeting of the citizens of Columbus, Georgia, convened at the Court House in said town, on Saturday the 25th of April, to adopt such measures as might be deemed proper and necessary to quell the disturbances, and to protect from threatened violation the person and property of the inhabitants of Columbus and the territory in Georgia, adjacent to the Creek tribe of Indians.

On motion of John T. Lamkin, Esq., the Hon. Grigsby E. Thomas was called to the Chair, and James Van Ness appointed Secretary.

The object of the meeting was stated at length by the Hon. Eli S. Shorter, and the meeting farther addressed by Gen. D. McDougald, Rev. Mr. Harris, B. Martin, Esq., and Mr. E. L. Wittich, when the following preamble and resolutions, introduced by the latter gentle man, were unanimously adopted.

Whereas, recent acts of hostility upon the part of the Indians in the Creek Nation have induced the Grand Jury of this County to investigate the subject, to devise means to put the town of Columbus in a more complete state of defense, in case of actual danger and alarm: And whereas the Committee appointed by the Grand Jury and the Columbus Guards have met and consulted upon the best means necessary to be adopted in the present unprotected state of the town, have thought proper to call a meeting of the citizens generally, and propose for their adoption the following resolutions:

Resolved, That the citizens present enroll their names in alphabetical order, and that they be divided into companies often each, commencing at the first name on the list, one of whom shall be captain.

Resolved, That it shall be the duty of each company to patrol the town from 9 o'clock at night until daylight in the morning, for one night in regular order, commencing with the first company.

Resolved, That each member when on patrol be required to be armed with a good gun and a sufficient quantity of ammunition.

Resolved, That when an alarm is given by the guard, each citizen repair forthwith to the City Hall, armed for active service.

On motion of J. P. H. Campbell, Esq., the following resolutions were adopted:

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed for the purpose of submitting the proceedings of this meeting to the citizens of the town who are not present, and request them to enroll their names.

Messrs. E. L. Wittich, E. S. Shorter and M. R. Evans were appointed this committee.

The following resolutions, introduced by the Hon. E. S. Shorter, were adopted:

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed by the Chair, to correspond with the Governor of Georgia, to apprise him of the acting and of the present state of our Indian relations, and respectfully request him to place a sufficient proportion of the military force of this part of the State in a situation for immediate service, and to place them under orders to resist and punish any aggressions which may be committed by the Indians upon the property, habitations or persons of our citizens, committed within our own limits, and if necessary to pursue them within the limits of Alabama.

Resolved also, That the same committee be instructed respectfully to request the Governor to correspond with the Governor of Alabama, and to assure him of the perfect willingness of the people and authorities of Georgia to cooperate with the authorities of Alabama in any measures which may be deemed necessary in repelling any and all aggressions of the Indians and punishing the offenders.

Messrs. E. S. Shorter, A. Iverson, and J. P. H. Campbell were appointed to compose that committee.

Gen. Daniel McDougald introduced the following resolution, which was adopted:

Resolved, That this meeting recommend to our fellow citizens of Russell County, Alabama, to organize a force for the purpose of scouring the County, demanding of the Chiefs in the different towns the murderers of those of our fellow citizens who have been, or may be killed; should any emergency arise requiring additional force, we pledge ourselves to render to them efficient aid.

On motion of Mr. E. L. Wittich, it was--

Resolved, That Gen. D. McDougald be appointed to apportion the citizens enrolled into companies and to take charge of them in case of an emergency.

The Columbus Guards were organized by election of officers previously, but they did not receive their commissions until May of this year. They entered the State service under Major General Daniel McDougald in December, 1835, and were, on the 1st of January, 1836, mustered into the service of the United States, from which they were "honorably discharged" on the 1st of September of the same year. The following is the roll of the officers and privates as mustered into service:

J. A. Urquhart, Captain;
Robt. A. Ware, First Lieutenant;
Burton Hepburn, Second Lieutenant;
Hines Holt, Third Lieutenant;
P. A. Clayton, Fourth Lieutenant;
John Jones, First Sergeant;
Samuel M. Jackson, Second Sergeant;
David Hudson, Third Sergeant;
Robt. S. Flournoy, Fourth Sergeant;
H. S. Wimberly, Fifth Sergeant;
Henry B. Milliken, First Corporal;
Geo. W. Martin, Second Corporal;
Wm. L. Jeter, Third Corporal;
John S. Allen, Fourth Corporal;
William Butts, Drummer;
John Thompson, Fifer.

H. C. Anderson
Alien G. Bass
Chas. L. Bass
Asa Bates
G. W. E. Bedell
Jos. Bender
Ransom Bird
S. R. Cashion
John E. Davis
Alphonso Delauney
M. R. Evans
A. L. Grant
Jos. B. Greene
E. S. Greenwood
J. D. Greenwood
Thos. B. Goulding
Thos. G. Gordon
Thos. P. Grimes
Wm. Harper
Jas. L. Hill
J. P. Hitchcock
Henry Hodges
Jas. R. Houghton
Theobald Houghton
Jas. D. Johnson
Jacob M. Johnson
Andrew P. Jones
Geo. W. Jones
Jas. H. Jones
John D. Jordan
Henry P. Lathrop
Q. A. Lawhon
John H. Love
Lewis Livingston
Ben. F. Malone
R. T. Marks
Henry Matthews
B. Matthewson
Allen Mims
Wm. Mitchell,
Monroe Mitchell
Jas. S. Moore
Jacob I. Moses
Richard W. Morris
Josiah Morris
E. Sigourney Norton
C. S. Pryor
Henry H. Randall
Jas. H. Reynolds
Francis Ruse
Thacker V. Rutherford
Thomas J. Shivers
Wm. Salisbury
Chas. H. Stewart
John St. John
Thomes E. Taggart
Washington Toney
David E. Walker
John T. Waller
W. C. Williamson


Two of the fine steamers running the Chattahoochee were lost in January of this year. The first was the new boat Eloisa, which was entirely consumed by fire on her first voyage down the river from Columbus, during the first week in January. Her cargo and furniture were entirely lost. She was laden with cotton, owned by merchants of Columbus and elsewhere, but this was insured. The Eloisa was owned by Messrs. Stewart & Fontaine, J. S. Calhoun, B. Hepburn and Col, D. J. Britt, and was commanded by Capt. Britt.

The second boat lost was the Versailles, which was snagged and sunk, early in January, near Fort Gadsden, a short distance above Apalachicola. As her cargo consisted of cotton, she too must have been on her down trip.

C. E. Bartlett published at this time, at his farm near Columbus, a neat little paper called the Southern Planter, devoted to agriculture and domestic economy.

This must have been a winter of unusual severity, as we find that on the 9th of January a man named Blalock was found dead near the bridge, having frozen to death during a snow storm the night previous, and on the same night two Indians, in a state of intoxication, were frozen to death near Columbus.

Proposals to build the Episcopal Church were invited by John Forsyth, Jr., agent of the building committee, on the 1st of January. We understand that it was the same church building now standing on Oglethorpe Street.

Books were opened in Columbus, in February, by Allen Lawhon, John Townsend and Nathaniel Nuckolls, Esq., for subscription to the stock of the "Pigeon Roost Mining Company," of Lumpkin County. The Miner's Record, referring to the incorporation of this company, said: "We are of opinion that stock taken in it will be far more valuable than in any institution in the United States." A year later, in March, 1836, the Macon Messenger mentioned as a curiosity the sight of a bank note or draft issued by "Pigeon Roost Mining Company of Lumpkin County," made payable to A. Lawhon at Columbus, and signed Nicholas Howard, President, B. C. Dimmick, Cashier.

In December of this year there were exciting and well attended races over the course at Columbus. At this meeting Col. Crowell's horse, John Bascomb, won the three-mile race, beating J. J. Harrison's Volney, in quick time. This race won for Bascomb a fame all over the Union. He was shortly afterwards matched against Col. Hampton's fast racer Argyle, Hampton staking $17,000, and Crowell $15,000. The race was run at Augusta, and was won by Bascomb in handsome style. A little later Bascomb ran at New York his celebrated race with the champion of the North (Post Boy we believe,) and won in this match of "the North against the South."

Cotton was quoted in January, at 13c. to 15c.


Thomas Samford was the Methodist minister stationed at Columbus, and Charles Hardy P. E. of the District.

Wm. Holland was Sheriff, and Joseph T. Killgore, Deputy Sheriff; Jas. C. Holland, Jailor; Gerard Burch, Clerk of the Superior Court; John Townsend, Clerk of the Inferior Court.

In October, Hepburn was elected Senator, and Bonner and Calhoun Representatives.


Jan. 11. - Isaac McGehee, of Girard, and Miss Martha H. Kennon, of Columbus.
Jan. 18. - Wm. Nichols and Miss Sarah Ann Field.

The following are names of business men mentioned in 1885, and not heretofore found in this compilation:


Foster & Fogle
Benj. Bonney
Code & Matthews
E. D. Ledyard
Wittich, Greenwood & Co.
William G. Porter
A. Dodge
David H. Garland & Co.
Allen & Hill
R. Woodruff
Niles & Richards


Marshall J. Wellborn
Philip H. Echols


J. J. Boswell


Dr. H. Balsan

Hotel or Boarding House Keepers

Bedell & Walker
Wheelock & Willard
Isaac Mitchell

Source: Columbus, Georgia from its Selection as a Trading town in 1827 to its Partial Destruction by Wilson's Raid in 1865, compiled by John H. Martin, Published by Thos. Gilbert, Book Printer and Binder, Columbus, GA, 1874

Transcribed by Judy White 2014©